The Aftermath of the War of 1812

As news arrived in America on February 13, 1815 that the Treaty of Ghent was finalized and that peace between America and Britain was complete, Americans had a complete change of mind. Rather than dwell on the burning of Washington, D.C. or the humiliation of Britain’s invasion, Americans relished the victory of General Andrew JacksonContinue reading “The Aftermath of the War of 1812”

Wrapping Up the War of 1812

By the end of the War of 1812, President James Madison had weathered what is likely one of the tumultuous years that any president has had to endure. The British had landed a force, marched on Washington, D.C., and burned the White House. President Madison had trusted his Secretary of War John Armstrong when heContinue reading “Wrapping Up the War of 1812”

The Setting Sun of the Founding Fathers

As the 1800s progressed, the era of the Founding Fathers was coming to an end. Thomas Jefferson and John Adams would outlast most of the Founding Fathers, only to die on the same date: July 4, 1826. The Founding Fathers would leave a profoundly different country than the one they created. Common Americans had createdContinue reading “The Setting Sun of the Founding Fathers”

An Outraged America

In March 1816, Congress passed a Compensation Act, “which raised the pay of congressmen from six dollars per diem to a salary of fifteen hundred dollars a year.” Gordon Wood, Empire of Liberty, 718-19. This was the first raise in the pay for congressmen since 1789. Id. at 719. Robert Wright, a Congressman in 1816, and previouslyContinue reading “An Outraged America”

The Emerging Middle Class and Entrepreneurial Spirit

Albert Gallatin knew as early as 1799 that the United States “had become commercially and socially different from the former mother country” England. Gordon Wood, Empire of Liberty, 704. At that time, Gallatin was a Congressman, but he would later serve as Secretary of the Treasury from 1801 to 1814. In realizing that America was different,Continue reading “The Emerging Middle Class and Entrepreneurial Spirit”

The War of 1812

The War of 1812 is often a forgotten war in modern times. It was a war that tested the Americans’ resolve in staying an independent nation and ultimately a war that brought together Americans in a way that no previous event had. Gordon Wood, Empire of Liberty, 699. It was also a war that brought aboutContinue reading “The War of 1812”

Everyone’s Tax Policy

Amidst the War of 1812, the Republicans passed a tax law “which included a direct tax on land, a duty on imported salt, and excise taxes on stills, retailers, auction sales, sugar carriages, and negotiable paper. All these taxes, however, were not to go into effect until the beginning of 1814.” Gordon Wood, Empire of Liberty,Continue reading “Everyone’s Tax Policy”

Gearing up for the War of 1812

In large part, the War of 1812 was brought about by necessity but also by politics. In terms of necessity, the British were executing a policy of impressment where the British would inspect American ships for contraband or material support for the French. America’s foreign policy adopted in reaction to these events was to createContinue reading “Gearing up for the War of 1812”

Setting the Stage for the War of 1812

In the early Republic, trading became a staple of the American economy, which affected American relations with other countries in drastic ways. American merchants “brought home products from Canton, China, and ports in the Indian Ocean, including teas, coffee, chinaware, spices, and silks, before shipping them on to Europe . . . .” Gordon Wood, EmpireContinue reading “Setting the Stage for the War of 1812”