The American Revolution changed political theory and government. At the heart of that change was the empowerment of the people, which continues to present day America.
The political theory that emerged from the Revolution and the debates surrounding the Constitution was not “a matter of deliberation as it was a matter of necessity.” Gordon Wood, The Creation of the American Republic: 1776-1787, 593.
James Madison had extensive beliefs about the structure of American government and the sustainability of the system.
While there were perceptions that America was suffering from a malaise in the 1780s, the political theory at the time had an explanation: licentiousness.