Constitution Sunday: “Publius,” The Federalist XLVIII [James Madison]

New-York Packet February 1, 1788 James Madison, under the pseudonym Publius, wrote about the system of checks and balances housed in the draft Constitution—and how fragile they are. Those checks and balances are “a mere demarkation on parchment of the constitutional limits of the several departments”—those departments being the legislative, executive, and judicial. And the […]


Constitution Sunday: “Publius,” The Federalist XLVI [James Madison]

New-York Packet January 29, 1788 James Madison, who would later become the fourth President of the United States, sought to quell fears of an overreaching and overly powerful federal government. The Constitution’s opponents had shared their fears—fears that Madison called “chimerical”—of a federal government that took power from the states and dominated the country’s governing. […]